Entrance Exam Overview - Prosthetic & Orthotic Educational Programs

With regard to the S407 Entrance exam, each applicant must find their own resources as it relates to the sections and topics listed under each in the Exam Overview on the program website. We do not have a more detailed syllabus beyond what is already listed and do not have any recommended texts or books as it pertains to the Admissions Test. It’s each applicants responsibility to source supporting documents, texts, books and related materials on their own.

ENTRANCE EXAM Overview

The test is made up of following sections and is weighted accordingly:

  1. Anatomy 20%
  2. Physiology & Pathology 10%
  3. Biomechanics & Biophysics 20%
  4. Prosthetics & Orthotics 20%
  5. Spatial Relations & Visual Perception 20%

Each candidate has 3 hours to complete the exam.

The exam is made up of multiple choice type questions.

The content of each section is as follows:

1) Anatomy

Anatomical Terminology
Skeletal Anatomy

  • Identification of bones and bony landmarks.

Relevant Muscles

  • Origins, insertions, actions, and major innervation.
  • Properties of skeletal muscle.

Major Joints

  • Joint classification
  • Range of motion, ligaments

Major Nerves

2) Physiology & pathology

Common deformities

Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology

  • Terminology.
  • Structure and function of nervous tissue.
  • Bone structure and function.
  • Normal bone physiology: processes, balances and controls, ossification, Wolfes Law, etc.
  • Basic physiology of joints and classifications.
  • Physiology of muscle contraction.

Common Prosthetic & Orthotic Related Pathologies

  • Understanding of major orthotic related pathologies: Spina Bifida, Cerebral Palsy, Cerebral Vascular Accident, Arthritis, Muscular Dystrophy, Spinal Cord Injuries (lesion levels), Fractures, related congenital defects and so on.
  • Etiologic and prognostic factors relating to orthotic treatment: assessment criteria, rationale for orthotic treatment, types of orthoses used

3) Biomechanics & biophysics

Terminology/Concepts:

BIOPHYSICS

  • kinetics, kinematics, force, Newton's laws, equilibrium, inertia, three point pressure systems, moment of force, centre of gravity and mass, force couples, levers (classification), principles of stability, friction, work, kinetic and potential energy

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES

  • stress/strain curves
  • terminology -> brittleness, hardness, elasticity, etc.
  • resistance to bending related to structural shapes
  • characteristics of orthotic and prosthetic materials

GAIT

  • gait terminology
  • phases and incidents of gait
  • determinants of gait and their significance
  • joint positions and major muscle involvement
  • ground reaction forces and line of action relative to joints

Free Body Diagrams:

  • determine FBDs from questions asked and information given
  • label diagrams appropriately from information given
  • determine FBDs for various segments of human gait
  • solve for; muscle, joint forces and force systems applied by prosthetic or orthotic devices

Resolution of Forces:

  • breakdown resultant forces into component forces
  • derive resultant forces from component forces
  • solve using trigonometric or graphic methods

4) Prosthetics & orthotics

Technical Fabrication

  • Properties and uses of all materials relating to the fabrication of all prosthetic appliances.
  • Principles of prosthetic bench and static alignment procedures.
  • Upper and lower extremity prosthetic fabrication procedures.

Clinical Theory: Upper Extremity

  • Levels of upper extremity amputations and the corresponding anatomy as it relates to prosthetic function.
  • Casting techniques and socket design theory for conventional and myoelectric prosthetic fittings.

Clinical Theory: Lower Extremity

  • Levels of lower extremity amputations and the corresponding anatomy as it relates to prosthetic function.
  • Component selection for different functional levels of amputees.
  • Casting techniques and socket design theories.
  • Prosthetic alignment principles and their applications during dynamic alignment.
  • Theories relating to new trends in prosthetic socket design, component development and fabrication procedures.

Application of Orthotic Principles

  • Illustrate how changes made to casts or tracings might achieve control of unbalanced muscle forces.
  • Optimal orthotic designs to best control the deformity.
  • Knowledge of common surgical techniques and their benefits or detriments to the patient/client.
  • Knowledge of the range of orthoses: spinal, upper and lower extremities.

Pathologies

  • Understanding of major orthotic related pathologies: Spina Bifida, Cerebral Palsy, Cerebral Vascular Accident, Arthritis, Muscular Dystrophy, Spinal Cord Injuries (lesion levels), Fractures, related congenital defects and so on
  • Etiologic and prognostic factors relating to orthotic treatment: assessment criteria, rationale for orthotic treatment, types of orthoses used.

5) Spatial relations & visual perception

This section entails a variety of exercises that challenge the candidates spatial and perceptual abilities as it relates to three dimensional objects. All questions are multiple choice.

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